Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://dspace.hnpu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/7306
Title: Технологія профілактики травматизму майбутніх фахівців з фізичного виховання та спорту в процесі професійної підготовки
Other Titles: Technology of injury prevention of future specialists in physical education and sports in the process of professional training
Authors: Козін, С. В.
Keywords: травма
студент
спорт
фізичне виховання
фахівець
підготовка
ризик
trauma
student
sport
physical education
specialist
training
risk
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Харківський національний педагогічний університет імені Г. С. Сковороди
Citation: Козін С. В. Технологія профілактики травматизму майбутніх фахівців з фізичного виховання та спорту в процесі професійної підготовки : дис. ... д-ра філософії : 015 – проф. освіта (за спеціалізаціями) / С. В. Козін ; Харків. нац. пед. ун-т ім. Г. С. Сковороди. – Харків : ХНПУ, 2022. – 283 с.
Abstract: Мета дослідження – розробити, обґрунтувати та експериментально перевірити біомеханічну технологію профілактики травматизму майбутніх фахівців з фізичного виховання та спорту в процесі професійної підготовки. Методи дослідження: аналіз літературних джерел, метод біомеханічного аналізу техніки спортивних рухів, метод експертної оцінки спортивної техніки, метод реєстрації травм, метод визначення ризику травматизму, методи математичної статистики. В дослідженні взяли участь: при аналізі техніки в обраному видів спорту (скелелазінні) 20 провідних скелелазів Миру і України і 20 початківців скелелазів-любителів чоловічої статі; при експериментальному обґрунтуванні ефективності застосування біомеханічної технології профілактики травматизму 84 студента чоловічої статі, що займаються скелелазінням на аматорському рівні в містах України (Харків, Дніпропетровськ, Львів, Вінниця, Кам'янець-Подільський, Київ) від 2 до 4 років віком 18-19 років. Всі спортсмени були також студентами факультетів фізичного виховання університетів України, з яких 44 увійшли до контрольної групи, 40 – до експериментальної. Topicality At the present stage, the development and implementation of health technologies in the training of specialists in various fields (Cretu, Borysenko, Ushmarova, Grynyova & Masych, 2021; Gavrysh, Ushmarova, & Kholtobina, 2021; Lynall et al., 2018; Martinez-de-Quel-Perez et al., 2019; McLoughlin et al., 2019; Nonoyama et al., 2016; O'Connor et al., 2017; Russell et al., 2019; Sang, 2019; Slater et al., 2019; Sommerfield et al., 2020; Stanley et al., 2016; Street and Jacobsen, 2017; Wanke et al., 2014). The process of training specialists in physical education and sports is no exception, which has its own specifics, which differs significantly from the process of training specialists in other specialties (Goossensb et al., 2019). This specificity is that the future specialist in physical education and sports should not only improve their skills in the chosen sport, but also learn on a basic basis other sports (athletics, gymnastics, swimming, basketball, volleyball, football, handball, music -rhythmic education, etc.) (Xiaofei, W., Korobeinik, V.A., Kozina, Z.L., 2021; Kozina, Z., Borysenko, I., Grynyova, V., Masych V, Ushmarova, V., 2021; Kanishchev, O., Kozina, Z., Grynyova, V., & Masych, V., 2021). The process of training specialists in physical education and sports is structured in such a way that students have a large number of practical disciplines in various sports along with the chosen one (Goossens et al., 2019). In practical classes, students learn technical skills, develop physical qualities, and learn to conduct classes not only in the chosen sport, but also in others. Therefore, the schedule of 11 students - future specialists in physical education and sports is built in such a way that in one day there can be 2-3 pairs of practical classes in different sports, and in the evening - training in the chosen sport. This puts a heavy burden on the cardiovascular system, which overtraining creates the conditions for injury. In addition, each sport has its own characteristics (Kozina et. al, 2018a). When mastering the basics of a particular sport from childhood, the process of learning motor skills is easier compared to adulthood, when the sensitive periods of natural learning are over. And so the nervous system and musculoskeletal system of students with mastery of skills in various sports receive a heavy load. It should be noted that different movements in their biomechanical structure require the formation of different connections in the nervous system, and this is quite a difficult task. And the constant switching from one movement to another, which occurs when changing the type of activity, chaotic activity of the nervous system, and, accordingly, the musculoskeletal system. This creates the conditions for increased injuries. That is why the question of developing such learning technologies that will provide reliable prevention of injuries to students - future professionals in physical education and sports. For the prevention of injuries it is necessary to form rational movements in the most optimal way (Bahrani et al., 2015; Chan et al., 2020; Liang and Zhang, 2014; Yin et al., 2020). That is why the technology of preserving the health of students - future specialists in physical education and sports should contain universal approaches to the process of learning technical skills, which will ensure the prevention of injuries and, consequently, the preservation of health. First, it is necessary to form in students the concept of biomechanically rational movements in general (LaBella et al., 2011; Pasanen et al., 2008; Parkkari et al., 2011; Steffen et al., 2013). Secondly, it is necessary to create conditions for students to master modern means of self-analysis of movement techniques (LaBella et al., 2011; Pasanen et al., 2008). Third, it is necessary to introduce into the learning process of students practical tools, ie, exercises that will promote the formation of biomechanically rational movements in any sport, and thus prevent injury (Lynall, et al. 2018; Martinez-de -Quel-Perez et al., 2019; Wanke et al., 2014). These provisions determine the great importance of research on the prevention of injuries of students - future professionals in physical education and sports, and based on these provisions, we can conclude that this work is timely and relevant. The purpose of the research is to develop, substantiate and experimentally test the biomechanical technology of injury prevention of future specialists in physical education and sports in the process of professional training. Research methods: analysis of literature sources, method of biomechanical analysis of sports equipment, method of expert evaluation of sports equipment, method of injury registration, method of determining the risk of injury, methods of athematical statistics. The study involved: in the analysis of equipment in selected sports (climbing) 20 leading climbers of the World and Ukraine and 20 novice male climbers; in the experimental substantiation of the effectiveness of biomechanical technology of injury prevention 84 male students engaged in climbing at the amateur level in the cities of Ukraine (Kharkiv, Dnepropetrovsk, Lyuvov, Vinnytsia, Kamyanets-Podilsk, Kyiv) from 2 to 4 years old aged 18-19. All athletes were also students of physical education faculties of Ukrainian universities, of which 44 were included in the control group, 40 - in the experimental. Results Based on biomechanical analysis, the main features of movement techniques (for example, certain sports) that affect the level of student injuries, in particular - the need to include muscles not only limbs but also the torso and other muscles to movements. Developed biomechanical technology for injury prevention in the training of specialists in physical education and sports, which contains 3 areas: 1 - theoreticalvand methodological (creating a basis for students to understand the mechanisms of movement without risk of injury, students' concept of biomechanically rational movements in general); 2 - analytical (providing students with knowledge about modern means of self-analysis of the level of technical skills); 3 - practical (students' mastery of practical means of injury prevention, ie, exercises that will promote the formation of biomechanically rational movements in any sport, and thus prevent injury); The use of biomechanical technology for injury prevention has shown high efficiency to improve the technique of the chosen sport and reduce the risk of injury for climbing students majoring in "Physical Education and Sports". There was a significant decrease in the angle between the shoulder and clavicle in climbing students majoring in "Physical Education and Sports", the experimental group (p <0,001), while in the control group these changes are not significant (p> 0,05). The groups before the experiment did not differ significantly in the angle between the shoulder and clavicle (p> 0.05). After the experiment, a significant difference was found between the control and experimental groups in terms of the angle between the shoulder and clavicle (p <0.05). There was also a significant improvement in the results of biomechanical analysis of climbing technique in athletes of the experimental group as a result of the experiment: after the experiment in athletes of the experimental group the angle between the shoulder and clavicle decreased significantly (p <0,001), while in the control group not reliable (p> 0.05). Recording the number of injuries of the upper extremities received by amateur climbers studying in the specialty "Physical Education and Sports" at the initial stage of training showed that during the year the following number of injuries was observed: among finger injuries: in the control group: 13 - low complexity, 11 - medium complexity, 9 - high complexity; in the experimental group: 5 - low complexity, 3 - medium complexity, 1 - high complexity; among injuries and diseases of the elbow: in the control group: 12 - low complexity, 10 - medium complexity, 7 - high complexity; in the experimental group: 3 - low complexity, 2 - medium complexity, 0 - high complexity; among injuries and diseases of the shoulder: in the control group: 8 - low complexity, 7 - medium complexity, 6 - high complexity; in the experimental group: 2 - low complexity, 1 - medium complexity, 0 - high complexity. It is established that the use of the developed technology of injury prevention for rock climbing students majoring in "Physical Education and Sports" reduces the risk of finger injuries: low complexity in 2,364 (95% CI = 0,925-6,041, P> 0.05) times; medium complexity - 3,333 times (95% CI = 1,001-11,096, P (Fisher) = 0,030); high complexity - 8,182 times (95% CI = 1,084-61,749, P (Fisher) = 0,011). The use of the developed technology of injury prevention reduces the risk of injuries and diseases of the elbow: low complexity by 3.64 times; medium complexity - 4,545 times (95% CI = 1,059-19,506, P (Fisher) = 0,02); high complexity was not determined, because in the experimental group no injury of the elbow of high complexity was detected. The use of the developed technology of injury prevention reduces the risk of injuries and diseases of the shoulder: low complexity - 3,636 times (95% CI = 1,106-11,959, P (Fisher) = 0,017); medium complexity - 6,364 times (95% CI = 1,818-49,487, P (Fisher) = 0,039); high complexity - was not determined, because in the experimental group was not found any shoulder injury of severe complexity. The applied technology of injury prevention significantly affects both the reduction of the number of injuries and the level of technical skills of athletes - students majoring in "Physical Education and Sports". The use of injury prevention technology has helped to increase the level of professional knowledge of students in the subjects of medical and biological cycle. The differences between the control and experimental groups by categories of the level of knowledge before the experiment were not significant (p> 0.05); the differences between the control and experimental groups after the experiment were significant (p <0.001). In the experimental group after the experiment, the majority of students (81.4-81.6%) took tests at the average level of knowledge (50-60% of correct answers). The experimental group also included students (18.2-18.6%) who took tests with a high level of knowledge (more than 60% correct answers), while the control group did not have such students after the experiment; in the control group the change in the level of knowledge of students as a result of the experiment is not significant (p> 0.05), in the experimental group - significant at p <0.001. Scientific novelty of the research. In this work for the first time: - developed biomechanical technology of injury prevention in the training of specialists in physical education and sports, which contains 3 areas: 1 - theoretical and methodological (creating a basis for students to understand the mechanisms of movement without risk of injury, students' concept of biomechanically rational movements in general); 2 - analytical (providing students with knowledge about modern means of self-analysis of the level of technical skills); 3 - practical (students' mastery of practical means of injury prevention, ie, exercises that promote the formation of biomechanically rational movements, and thus prevent injuries); - the algorithm of revealing of the basic kinematic parameters of various models of technics characteristic of students with various level of possession of technics of sports movements is developed; - the principles of application of means for prevention of injuries are defined: 1 - strengthening of the muscles participating in performance of the movement; 2 - the formation of functional movement, ie coordinated work of the muscles of the torso, upper and lower extremities; - developed and demonstrated the effectiveness of the technology of injury prevention in climbing, in particular - students majoring in "Physical Education and Sports"; developed and systematized tools to prevent injuries to students - future professionals in physical education and sports. All remedies are conventionally divided into two groups: sports remedies and remedies specific to physical therapy, namely: Feldenkrais methods, Redcord therapy, PNF therapy. For the first time, physical therapy was used in a non-traditional way: to improve movement technique and to prevent injuries; - it was found that the application of the developed biomechanical technology of injury prevention in the process of training specialists in physical education and sports has a positive effect on the formation of technical skills of students in the chosen sport and in non-core sports; - it is shown that the application of the developed biomechanical technology of injury prevention in the process of training specialists in physical education and sports significantly reduces the risk of injury to students; shows the effectiveness of biomechanical technology in the use of neuromuscular training using exercises in a closed kinematic chain, eccentric exercises in combination with strength exercises to prevent injuries and the formation of effective movement techniques for climbing students majoring in "Physical Culture and Sports" ; - the positive influence of the application of injury prevention technology on the level of professional knowledge of students - future specialists in physical education and sports. The paper confirms the data on the need for the formation of biomechanically sound movement techniques for the prevention of injuries in sports, the theory of movement control on the need for the formation of rational techniques for injury prevention. The paper expands and supplements the data on the use of neuromuscular training for the prevention of injuries in various sports, including climbing. The practical significance of the study. The application of the developed biomechanical technology of injury prevention in the process of training specialists in physical education and sports has helped to improve movement techniques and reduce the number and severity of injuries The use of injury prevention technology has helped to increase the level of professional knowledge of students in the subjects of medical and biological cycle. The results of the research were introduced into the educational process of training specialists in physical education and sports of H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical, specialists in physical education and sports of the Black Sea National University named after Petro Mohyla, Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University, also the results of research implemented in the process of physical rehabilitation of students-athletes in Alef Clinic. Seminars "Biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system", "Biomechanics of fitness", "Biomechanics of physical therapy" 18-19.07.2020, 10-11.10.2020, 7-8.11.2020 were held.
URI: https://dspace.hnpu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/7306
Appears in Collections:Дисертації

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Dissertacia_Serhii_Kozin.pdf8.39 MBAdobe PDFView/Open


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.