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Харківський національний педагогічний університет імені Г. С. Сковороди
У статті на основі вивчення міжнародного та вітчизняного нормативного законодавства автором розкрито сутність основних дефініцій, пов’язаних із забезпеченням прав і свобод людини в суспільстві; диференційовано поняття «права» та «свободи», розкрито специфіку прав людини й громадянина; визначена роль правозахисних органів, зокрема Національної поліції України, у забезпеченні прав і свобод людини. The results of the study, aimed at revealing the legal framework for ensuring human rights and freedoms as a basis for the activity of law enforcement agencies of Ukraine, and highlighting the role of the National Police in ensuring human rights and freedoms, are presented. The scientific novelty of the study is that, based on the study of international and national regulatory legislation, the essence of the leading definitions related to the protection of human rights and freedoms is specified: «rights, freedoms», «human and citizen's rights», «protected features», «intersectionality», «law enforcement agencies», differentiated the concept of «rights» and «freedom», revealed the specifics of human and citizen rights, systematically analyzed the legal basis of social and legal protection, defined the role of law enforcement agencies, of the National Police of Ukraine in the Protection of Human Rights and Freedoms, outlined ways to increase the effectiveness of law enforcement agencies in ensuring social stability in society. It is established that an in-depth understanding of the essence of human and citizen's rights and freedoms ensures adherence to the democratic course of development of the state, selection of such forms and directions of activity of its human rights bodies and institutions, which ensure the implementation of the principle of guaranteeing the security of a person, which was enshrined in many international documents, received its further development of national legislation. Based on the study of specific regulations, the concept of «protected features» – the characteristics of a person under which there can be no privileges or restrictions in the society (race, color, political, religious and other beliefs, gender, ethnic and social background, property status, place) residence, linguistic or other features), and intersectionality – the totality or intersection of these features in the context of considering the circumstances of a particular person's life. On this basis, the essence of human rights and freedoms as a general orientation of the state and all its institutions on the equality and fair distribution of public goods and resources is substantiated. It is emphasized that among the state bodies, which are obliged to take measures to ensure the constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens, the National Police plays an important role, which, in comparison with other law enforcement agencies, addresses the most issues related to the protection of human rights and freedoms. It is determined that this human rights structure, unlike others, was created for direct contact with citizens, and therefore the quality of human rights services provided by the state can be directly assessed by each person from his or her own life experience. Accordingly, the public's perception of all other law enforcement activities depends on the quality and efficiency of the work of the National Police.
Ключові слова
права, свободи, правоохоронні органи, Національна поліція України, rights, freedoms, protected features, intersectionality, human and citizen rights, law enforcement agencies, activities of the National Police of Ukraine, international and national legislation
Танько А. В. Діяльність правоохоронних органів щодо забезпечення прав і свобод людини / А. В. Танько // Збірник наукових праць Харківського національного педагогічного університету імені Г. С. Сковороди. Сер. : Право. – Харків, 2020. – Вип. 31. – С. 34–42.